Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)

Organisation profile

The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (National Centre for Scientific Research) is a government-funded research organization, under the administrative authority of France's Ministry of Research. As the largest fundamental research organization in Europe, CNRS carried out research in all fields of knowledge. CNRS encourages collaboration between specialists from different disciplines in particular with the university thus opening up new fields of enquiry to meet social and economic needs.

CNRS has developed interdisciplinary programs which bring together various CNRS departments as well as other research institutions and industry. Interdisciplinary research is under-taken in the following domains: (i) Life and its social implications, (ii) Information, communication and knowledge, (iii) Environment, energy and sustainable development, (iv) Nanosciences, nanotechnologies, materials, (v) Astroparticles: from particles to the Universe.

CNRS laboratories (or research units) are located throughout France, and employ a large body of tenured researchers, engineers, and support staff. Six CNRS laboratories will be involved in HAIC. They will be grouped as third parties within the single CNRS partner name. Alfons Schwarzenboeck from CNRS-LAMP will scientifically coordinate all CNRS activities performed by A) CNRS-CORIA, B) CNRS-LAMP, C) CNRS-LATMOS, D) CNRS-LERMA, E) CNRS-LOA and F) CNRS-SAFIRE in HAIC.

A) CNRS-CORIA (Complexe de Recherche Interprofessionnel en Aérothermochimie)

The laboratory CORIA is a joint research unit organised between the University of Rouen, the INSA of Rouen and the French Scientific National Research Centre (CNRS). The field of research of the CORIA is related to combustion, turbulence, multiphase flow, atmospheric pollution, optic and optronic, with a strong background in light scattering by particle and its application to particle characterisation.

Role in the project

The laboratory CORIA will be involved in the development of icing instrumentation through WP44 with IRSN and VKI. CNRS will determine the optimal geometry of the optical setup. Jointly with IRSN and VKI, CNRS will define an adaptation of the ALIDS concepts for its extension to detect a threshold of ice crystals. Jointly with IRSN and VKI, CNRS will support ZA-INT regarding industrial realization.

B) CNRS-LAMP (Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique)

LAMP is a CNRS research laboratory associated to the University Blaise Pascal (UBP) in Clermont-Ferrand. The research is followed by the Ocean/Atmosphere department of INSU. The CNRSLAMP represents one the two member institutions of the OPGC (Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont) observatory.

Role in the project

CNRS-LAMP will provide expertise for data exploitation (WP12, WP14, WP15) of convective tropical clouds. CNRS-LAMP has developed sophisticated tools for interpretation of microphysical measurements (WP24, WP52) related to the characterisation of ice water content, from detailed particle imagery (PSD) correlated with total mass (IWC) and active remote sensing measurement analysis.

For the airborne field experiments, CNRS-LAMP will led WP13 and contribute to WP22 and WP23 with its unique instrumental payload with new instruments as Robust and CPSD probes in addition to already existing/certified ones (CPI high resolution imager, 2D-Stereo probe, etc.) on the F20 aircraft, and possibly on the Airbus F/T aircraft. CNRS-LAMP will lead the F20 campaign (WP22).

C) CNRS-LATMOS (Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales)

CNRS-LATMOS was created on January 1st 2009, resulting from the merge of the former Service d'Aéronomie (SA) and Centre d'Etudes des Environnements Terrestre et Planétaires (CETP).

CNRS-LATMOS has a large experience in building and developing cloud Doppler radar and lidar instruments for both ground-base and airborne platforms. For instance LATMOS has developed the synergistic airborne RALI (Radar-Lidar) platform, which combines a Doppler radar at 94GHz and a lidar at 532-1064 nm with High Spectral Resolution capability at 355nm. The cloud research group at LATMOS is also a specialist in developing radar and lidar retrieval algorithms.

Role in the project

CNRS-LATMOS will bring the Radar/Lidar expertise from both airborne and space borne platforms.

CNRS-LATMOS will be working on the integration and the operation of RASTA cloud radar (and LNG lidar) on Falcon 20. CNRS-LATMOS will be co-PI of the cloud radar and lidar operations during the field experiment.

CNRS-LATMOS will contribute to WP22 (Flight test for high IWC characterisation) and WP24 (Microphysical properties of the high IWC regions using flight tests) by retrieving micro-physical cloud properties from radar and eventually radar-lidar.

CNRS-LATMOS will contribute to the WP33 and will be leading Task 33.3 (Evaluation of A-Train empirical high IWC detection scheme).

D) CNRS-LERMA (Laboratoire d'Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matière en Astrophysique)

LERMA is one of the five departments located at the Paris Observatory and has its main focus on the study of the cold universe. It has also developed an expertise in planetary microwave remote sensing.

The remote sensing group at LERMA has a recognised experience in the field of passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth, from satellite, from aircraft and from ground, with the objective of analyzing the Earth atmosphere (in clear air, cloudy and precipitation conditions) and surface parameters.

Various aspects of the radiative transfer modelling have been examined, from modelling of the surface to the modelling of the scattering atmosphere. Inversion methods have been developed to retrieve atmospheric and surface parameters from satellite observations.

Role in the project

CNRS-LERMA undertook the lead of SP3 Spaceborne observation and nowcasting of high IWC regions from METEO-France and also leads WP33 from the beginning of the project. CNRS-LERMA will provide expertise in microwave and submillimetre wave radiometry and in analysis of space-based multi-instrumental observations. Indeed CNRS-LERMA will participate to the analysis of space-based observations temporally and spatially co-located with reported high IWC events. In collaboration with CNRS-LOA and CNRS-LATMOS, CNRS-LERMA will derive empirical high IWC detection scheme based on temporally and spatially co-located MSG/A-Train high IWC records. CNRS-LERMA will also participate to the evaluation of the empirical MSG/A-Train high IWC detection scheme and to the development of some climatology of the frequency occurrence of high IWC events over the Tropics.

E) CNRS-LOA (Laboratoire d’Optique Atmosphérique)

The CNRS-LOA is a CNRS research laboratory associated to the University Lille1, Sciences and Technologies in Lille. The research is followed by the Ocean/Atmosphere department of INSU.

Role in the project

CNRS-LOA will provide expertise for data exploitation and analysis (WP33) of shortwave and infrared remote sensing data acquired by the POLDER3 and MODIS instruments on board the PARASOL and Aqua satellites respectively. These two missions are components of the Afternoon (or A-Train) international satellite constellation. LOA proposes to investigate any specific signature associated with high IWC in convective tropical clouds and particularly around Darwin and Cayenne within the 2006-2012 time period. Since the early 1990s and the launch of the first POLDER instrument in space, the laboratory know-how is widely recognised in processing and interpretation of satellite data to characterise atmospheric components.

F) SAFIRE (Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement)

SAFIRE is a public entity of the CNRS, jointly controlled by the CNRS-INSU, Météo-France and the CNES for the operation of aircraft performing research in the fields of Environment and Geo-Sciences.

Atmospheric airborne research started in France in 1947 with the Meteorological Aviation Centre of Météo-France and was reinforced in 1973 with the creation of the INSU’s research flight facility of CNRS. This activity reached a turning point in 2005 when these two groups merged into a single infrastructure SAFIRE. SAFIRE is now the unique environmental science aircraft operator in France.

The SAFIRE aircraft fleet is constituted of 3 complementary aircraft which allow addressing different scientific issues from the lower atmospheric layers up to the first stratospheric layers.

SAFIRE is a member of the European Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR, FP7).

Role in the project

SAFIRE will provide the French Falcon 20 and conduct the first HAIC flight test campaign at Darwin in 2013 (WP22).

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